Category: English

(30) Jangan keseringan pakai intensifiers dan hedges

Intensifiers maksudnya menggunakan adjective, adverbs, atau verbs yang digunakan untuk menguatkan nounds atau verbs. Keseringan pakai intensifiers membuat penulis tampak arogant dan terlalu agresif. Continue reading “(30) Jangan keseringan pakai intensifiers dan hedges”

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(11) Verb placement

Avoid interruptions between subject and verb.

  • Rhinovirus, an Enterovirus belonging to the family Picornaviridae, which consists of 37 species grouped into 17 genera including pathogens such as Poliovirus, Saffold virus, Coxsacke A virus, and Hepatitis A virus, causes 10-40% of the common cold. (bad, S + V is separated by 30 words)
  • Revision: Rhinovirus is an Enterovirus belonging to the family Picornaviridae, which consists of 37 species grouped into 17 genera including pathogens such as Poliovirus, Saffold virus, Coxsacke A virus, and Hepatitis A virus. It causes 10-40% of the common cold.
  • Or: Rhinovirus causes 10-40% of the common cold.

 

Avoid interruptions between verb and object

  • We conclude, based on very simplified models of solar variability, that solar variability is insignificant.(bad)
  • Revision 1: We conclude that solar variability is insignificant based on very simplified models of solar variability.
  • Revision 2: Based on very simplified models of solar variability, we conclude that solar variability is insignificant.

 

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(12) Use the first person

Memakai “I” atau “We” boleh ga?

Boleh, asalkan:

  • jangan gunakan berlebihan
  • profesor tidak melarang

Q: Katanya penelitian kudu objektif, kalo pakai kata ganti orang pertama (I atau We) bukannya subjektif ya?

A: Sains itu tidaklah murni objektif bro, menulis dalam perspektif I atau We pada konteks berikut malah lebih akurat dan kuat kok.

Contoh tulisan yang niatnya ga mau pake “I” atau “we”, tapi malah aneh:

  • To determine the mechanism for the direct effect of contrast media on heart muscle, the study on heart muscles isolated from cats was carried out.
  • The authors show here that two main causes exist for avalanches: snow pack and external stress on the snow pack.

Revisi:

  • To determine the mechanism for the direct effect of contrast media on heart muscle, we carried out the study on heart muscles isolated from cats.
  • We show here that two main causes exist for avalanches: snow pack and external stress on the snow pack.

Note: menggunakan kalimat aktif, kalimat lebih hidup.

 

Bagaimana kalo di Materials and Methods?

Kalo di seksi ini agak beda ya. Karena materials, methods, organisms adalah yang penting (topiknya), jadi penggunaan We kurang dipilih.

 

>> Kembali ke Chapter 4

(18) Hindari noun cluster

Noun clusters adalah frase-frase seperti ini:

  • porcine tracheal fluid samples.
  • Petter Carri is condensed matter and quantum many-body theoretical physicist.

Kata bendanya adalah samples dan physicist, dan kata-kata sebelumnya adalah penjelas yang berfungsi sebagai kata sifat, tapi kepanjangan.

Sometimes called as noun stacks, noun strings, or noun compounds—noun piles, anyone?

Noun clusters can shut down your comprehension even if you understand each word. You may stop and re-read. You may draw an incorrect conclusion. You may skip over the words. Or you may do the last thing the writer wanted you to do: move on to someone else’s words.

Check out these alternatives to a few of the above examples

  • fluid samples from the trachea of pigs.
  • Petter Carri is a theoretical physicist studying condensed matter and quantum many-body physics.

Note that certain pairs and cluster are accepted terms such as:

  • water bath
  • cell wall
  • sucrose density gradient

Do not break such terms apart. If you unsure  if a term is accepted as a single word, look it up in a dictionary or a recent journal article.

To bust noun clusters when you write or edit, first get clear on what you want to say. If you don’t know, ask; you can’t bust a noun cluster until you understand what it means—and noun clusters notoriously obscure meaning. Then, when you know what needs to be said, try these techniques:

  1. add hypens
  2. explain the name
  3. explain the reader that you will use a shorter name

Example:

pyrophosphate dependent phosphofructo-1-kinase apoform structure.

There are three ways to help your reader (based on the 3 strategies above)

  1. pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructo-1-kinase apo-form structure.
  2. the structure of the apo-form of pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructo-1-kinase
  3. the apo-form structure of pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructo-1-kinase, short PPi-PFK apo-form.

Hypens in noun cluster are most often used for:

  1. Two-word terms that used together: high-pressure chamber, ATP-dependent
  2. Adjectives that consist of three or more words: four-to-one ratio.
  3. Terms that contain a capital letter or a number and a noun: C-terminal end, 10-fold increase

 

Referensi

http://contentrules.com/noun-cluster/

Hofmann AH, 2017, Scientific writing and communication papers, proposals, and presentations, 3rd edition. Oxford University Press

 

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