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Menebar Ilmu Pengetahuan

Tes laboratorium klinik

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Saat ini menjamur lab-lab klinik berdiri di Yogyakarta, (dan banyak juga dengan bangunan yang super duper wah bak bangunan Eropa). Gedung yang besar, tiang-tiang segede gajah, lampu yang terang-benderang serasa masuk istana, hahaha. Namun esensinya di sana adalah tempat pengujian yang membantu dalam menegakkan diagnosis status penyakit. Ada berbagai macam parameter tes yang bisa dilakukan, misal uji elektrolit (paling simpel), kolestrol, HbA1c, dll. Berikut akan diberikan contoh parameter-parameter lain berdasarkan kategorinya.

1. Biokimia klinik

  • urea and electrolytes (U&Es): a standard
  • request may provide sodium, potassium, urea
  • and creatinine levels
  • liver function tests (LFTs)
  • lipid profiles
  • glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)
  • thyroid function tests (TFTs).

2. Hematologi

Monitoring haematological digunakan sebagai tes skrining umum untuk membantu diagnosis pada kondisi inflamasi atau diskrasias darah terkait obat, identifikasi anemia dan monitor koagulasi sperti selama terapi warfarin. Tes meliputi:

  • full blood count (FBC): permintaan standar meliputi haemoglobin, white blood cell count (WBC), platelets, mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), red blood cell count (RBC), haematocrit (Hct) dan estimasi tipe diferensi sel darah putih (WBC)
  • erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
  • koagulasi darah
  • vitamin B12 dan folat.

3. Monitoring antikoagulan oral

4. Tes imunologi

  • Skrining utoantibodi atau autoimun meliputi deteksi antibodi pada sediaan sitoplasma tiroid, sel  parietal, mitokondria, sel otot, dan mikrosom liver atau ginjal.
  • Rheumatoid factor: tes positif untuk konfirmasi diagnosis rheumatoid arthritis/autoimmune rheumatoid disorders.
  • C-reactive protein (CRP), yang mengalami peningkatan selama infeksi dan atau inflamasi parah dan dilakukan berulang untuk monitor outcome terapi. CRP lebih spesifik untuk inflamasi, nekrosis atau infeksi, dan berubah lebih cepat dibanding ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate)
  • Antibodi Thiroid (pada Graves’ disease).
  • Immunoglobulins: patients presenting with epigastric pain may be tested for the presence of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) against Helicobacter pylori infection.
  • Paul–Bunnell test (infectious mononucleosisor glandular fever) in response to persistent sore throat, lethargy, fever, headache and cervical adenopathy.
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA): a positive test provides an early indication of prostate cancer even when the patient is asymptomatic. This is, however, a relatively non-specific test, because only a proportion of patients who have a high value have malignancy.

5. Mikrobiologi

Microbiology tests are performed on samples such as urine, sputum, cerebrospinal fluid, faeces, or swabs from the vagina or cervix, nose or eyes. These tests tend to be requested when treatment has failed, or sinister causes are suspected, e.g. in symptoms suggestive of meningitis or if there is a risk of sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia infection, gonorrhoea or syphilis.

Daftar pustaka

Michael D Randall and Karen E Neil, 2009, Disease Management 2nd Edition: A guide to clinical pharmacology, Pharmaceutical Press, London [Pages from ebooksclub.org__Disease_Management__2nd_Edition]

Author: admin

menebar ilmu pengetahuan

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