Sambiloto dan Diabetes Melitus


Sambiloto atau nama Latinnya Andrographis paniculata Nees sudah sangat popluler di masyarakat. Ciri khas tanaman ini adalah rasanya yang pahit. Rasa pahit tersebut disebabkan karena adanya zat pahit yaitu  andrografolid. Zat andrographolide ini tidak ada di tanaman lain. Selain andrographolide tanaman ini juga mempunyai kandungan zat panicolin. Andrographolide dan panicolin itu memang spesifik. Fungsi utamanya sebenarnya adalah meningkatkan daya tahan tubuh. Makanya di Amerika Serikat, sambiloto sudah dipatenkan sebagai obat penyakit AIDS.

Pemakaian di masyarakat untuk penyakit DM: Daun sambiloto segar sebanyak 1/2 genggam dicuci lalu direbus dengan 3 gelas air bersih sampai tersisa 2 1/4 gelas. Setelah dingin disaring, lalu diminum sehabis makan, 3 kali sehari @ 3/4 gelas. Umumnya kalau kita mau meminum sehari 2 gelas ramuan sambiloto, maka daya tahan tubuh kita akan meningkat dan tidak mudah terserang penyakit. Caranya: 10 gram daun kering diberi  air 4 gelas lalu direbus hingga airnya tersisa 2 gelas.

Bagaimana scientific tumbuhan ini dikembangkan?

Antihyperglycemic and Hypoglycemic Effects

Water extract of A. paniculata significantly prevents orally administered glucose-induced hyperglycemia in nondiabetic rabbits without affecting epinephrine-induced hyperglycemia. Chronic administration of the extract for six weeks also showed no effect on fasting blood glucose level (1). However, ethanol extract, administered orally twice daily for 14 days to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats significantly reduced fasting serum glucose and increased body weight in a dose-dependent manner. The extract also significantly lowered levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in liver and kidney compared to vehicle-treated rats, while significantly increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes and hepatic glutathione concentrations in diabetic rat (2). An ethanol extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight twice daily for two weeks to diabetic rats produced a 49.8-percent reduction in fasting serum triglyceride levels. This was greater than the 27.7-percent decline achieved with 500 mg/kg body weight metformin twice daily for 14 days (3). An aqueous extract (50 mg/kg body weight) given to streptozotocin-diabetic rats resulted in a 52.9-percent decrease in blood glucose levels. Freeze-dried material decreased blood glucose by 61.8 percent at a lower dose of 6.25 mg/kg body weight (4). Similar results were obtained by Dandu and Inamdar with oral administration of an aqueous extract of A. paniculata leaves. A dose of 400 mg/kg lowered blood glucose level of streptozotocin-induced animals and increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Oral adminis-tration of the decoction also significantly reduced blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, and reduced food and water intake compared to vehicle-treated diabetic controls (5). Extended mean estrous cycles (eight days) was reduced to five days in treated diabetic rats (6).

Andrographolide appears to dose-dependently reduce plasma glucose concentration in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and normal rats, with a more marked effect in normal rats than in diabetic rats (7). This is a significant difference from the water extract, which did not show a glucose-lowering effect in one study of normoglycemic rats (5). Andrographolide also attenuates the increase in plasma glucose in response to an intravenous glucose challenge in normal rats and enhances the uptake of radioactive glucose by isolated soleus muscle of streptozotocin-diabetic rats in a concentration-dependent manner. Repeated intravenous administration of andrographolide in diabetic rats for three days resulted in an increase in mRNA and protein levels of glucose transporter (GLUT4) in the soleus muscle, an indication that the glucose-lowering effect of andrographolide could be due to better glucose utilization by skeletal muscle (7).  However, after in vitro experiments, Wibudi et al concluded that the hypoglycemic effect of A. paniculata is due to insulin release from pancreatic β-cells through ATP-sensitive potassium channels, similar to other insulinotropic antidiabetic agents (8). In vitro experiments conducted by Subramanian et al suggested that inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase enzyme could be the mechanism by which the ethanol extract of A. paniculata and andrographolide produce hypoglycemic effect (9).

Bukti-bukti yang ada menunjukkan bahwa aksi hipoglikemik dan antihiperglikemik dari ekstrak dan andrographolide mungkin melibatkan mekanisme yang berbeda dalam kondisi normal dan diabetes. Ekstrak air tampaknya menjadi lebih cocok untuk penelitian lebih lanjut karena tidak mempengaruhi kadar glukosa darah puasa hewan non-diabetes. Identifikasi konstituen penurun glukosa darah dalam air dan etanol ekstrak mungkin memberi informasi berharga.

References

  1. Borhanuddin M, Shamsuzzoha M, Hussain AH. Hypoglycemia effects of Andrographis paniculata Nees on non-diabetic rabbits. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull 1994;20:24-26.
  2. Zhang XF, Tan BK. Antihyperglycemic and anti-oxidant properties of Andrographis paniculata in normal and diabetic rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2000;27:358-363.
  3. Zhang XF, Tan BK. Antidiabetic property of ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in streptozoto-cin-diabetic rats. Acta Pharmacol Sinica 2000;21:1157-1164.
  4. Husen R, Pihie AH, Nallappan M. Screening for antihyperglycemic activity in several local herbs of Malaysia. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;95:205-208.
  5. Dandu AM, Inamdar NM. Evaluation of beneficial effects of antioxidant properties of aqueous leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata in STZ-induced diabetes. Pak J Pharm Sci 2009;22:49-52.
  6. Reyes BA, Bautista ND, Tanquilut NC, et al. Anti-diabetic potentials of Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata and their effects on estrous cyclicity of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;105:196-200.
  7. Yu BC, Hung CR, Chen WC, Cheng JT. Antihyperglycemic effect of androgra-pholide in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Planta Med 2003;69:1075-1079.
  8. Wibudi A, Kiranadi B, Manalu W, et al. The traditional plant, Andrographis paniculata (Sambiloto), exhibits insulin-releasing actions in vitro. Acta Med Indones 2008;40:63-68.
  9. Subramanian R, Asmawi MZ, Sadikun A. In vitro alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of Andrographis paniculata extract and andrographolide. Acta Biochim Pol 2008;55:391-398

Link PDF

  1.  [sambiloto]
  2. sambiloto 2
  3. K100050238
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Posted on 10/23/2011, in NATURAL PRODUCT. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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